RedCrab Calculator
   User Manual
Contents

1.0 Mathematical Expressions
1.1 Basics
1.2 Simple Addition
1.3 Exponent
1.4 Subscript & Implied Multiplication
1.5 Fraction & Square Root
1.6 Hexadecimal Input
1.7 Operators

2.0 The Toolbox
2.1 Fonts
2.2 Font Size
2.3 Superscript
2.4 Subscript
2.5 Escape
2.6 DEG / RAD
2.7 Exponent -EXP
2.8 Decimal Digits
2.9 Fix-/ Floating point results
2.10 Hexadecimal Output
2.11 Clear
2.12 Reset
2.13 Enter

3.0 Function Panel
3.1 Number Panel
3.2 Scientific Panel
3.3 Symbol Panel

4.0 Programmer Panel
4.1 Div
4.2 Mod

4.3 And
4.4 Or
4.5 Xor
4.6 Shl / Shr
4.7 Incl
4.8 Excl
4.9 Not
4.10 Trunc
4.11 Hex

5.0 Standard Panel
5.1 Round
5.2 Int
5.3 Frac
5.4 Rnd
5.5 URnd
5.6 Abs

6.0 Fields Panel
6.1 Join
6.2 Mulx
6.3 Fill
6.4 Patt
6.10 Trans
6.11 Min , Max
6.12 Count
6.13 Aver
6.14 AddIn
6.15 AddTo
6.16 AddOn
6.17 MulIn
6.18 MulTo

6.19 MulAd

7.0 Statistics Panel
7.1 Sum
7.2 Prod
7.3 Cusum
7.4 Sort, DSort
7.5 Median
7.6 Mean
7.7 Vari / SVari
7.8 StDev / SStDev
7.9 Diff
7.10 LQuart
7.11 UQuart
7.12 QRan

8.0 Keyboard
8.1 Key Codes
8.2 Greek Letter Codes

10.0 File Menu
10.1 Open
10.2 Reopen
10.3 Save
10.4 SaveAs
10.5 Print a worksheet
10.5.1 Page Setup
10.5.2 Printer Setup

11.0 Edit Menu
11.1 Undo / Redo
11.2 Copy / Paste

11.3 Paste To Box
11.3.1 Textbox
11.3.2 Text Editing
11.4 Cut / Delete

12.0 View Menu
12.1 Grid
12.2 Undock Functions Panel
12.3 Functions Panel
12.4 Virtual Keyboard

13.0 Insert Menu
13.1 Image File
13.2 Text File
13.3 New Text Box
13.4 Text Box to Image
13.5 Show Text Box
13.6 Result Box
13.6.1 Popup Menu
13.6.1.1 Reference und Format
13.6.1.2 SI-Prefix
13.6.1.3 Formatting
13.6.1.4 Specification of a prefix
13.6.1.5 Format Commands
13.6.2 Font and Background
13.6.2.1 Font
13.6.2.2 Background
13.6.2.3 Transparent
13.6.3 Positions
13.6.3.1 Sent to Back - Bring to Front
13.6.3.2 Vertical
13.6.3.3 Angle

13.6.4 Synchronization
13.6.4.1 Grid Sync
13.6.4.2 Object Sync
13.6.4.3 Non Sync
13.7 Chart Box

14.0 Extras Menu
14.1 Page Lock
14.2 Cell Unlock
14.3 Remark

15.0 Options Menu
15.1 Column Space
15.2 Long Term
15.3 Display Buffer
15.4 Keyboard
15.5 Settings to Registry

16.0 Help Menu

17.0 Work with RedCrab
17.1 Variable overload
17.2 Fractions
17.3 Root
17.4 Escape Mode
17.5 Fields
17.6 Multidimensional fields
17.7 Work with fields
17.8 Field Display
17.9 Constants
17.10 Error Messages

18.0 Index

   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W



1.0 Mathematical Expressions

1.1 Basics
   You can write your formula basically at any editor position. Any expression may occupied any number of rows and columns. It not allowed to split an expression and continue in the next row.

Wrong: z = 12+14 4+15+20
   +5+10

Correct:
   z = 12+14 4+15+20+5+10

Correct:
   X = 12+14 4+15+20
   Z = X+5+1 10

You can write several mathematical expressions on one work sheet. The expressions result displays only if terminated with equal sign

Example 1:   a+b         =108
                      a= 27+9
                      8*4         =32
                      b=12*6   =72

Several mathematical expressions can be written per row. Between each mathematical expression, there must either a minimum number at blank columns (defined in Menu Options Column Space) or a colon must be set

Example 1:    Column Sp



Example 2:   Column Sp4

The minimum distance displayed at bottom right corner, next to the keyboard setting. In example 2 the minimum distance is set to 4 columns, displayed at bottom right corner, next to the keyboard setting. In example 2 the minimum distance is set to 4 columns.

Col Sp An equal sign behind a formula is always assigned to the previous formula, even if the distance to the formula is greater than the column space setting. In the example right, the distance of the equal sign is up to eight columns, although the minimum distance is only four columns.






Close proximity can caused unexpected errors. For error localization RedCrab marked the cell where an error is detected with a blue frame. It also marks the incorrect formula with a red frame. In the example below, an invalid assignment is signaled. The red box shows, however, that two formulas were joined because the distance is too close. The setting in this example is 4 columns, the distance between the formulas is only 2 columns space error

1.2 Simple Addition
   1. Enter the expression 17 + 4
   2. For result press Ctrl+Enter

The Ctrl+Enter key starts RedCrab and displays the result. Alternative click the function panels Enter button. Results are always displayed in blue

The display shows:
    17+4=21

Variable and Values

   1. Enter the expression 17 + 4 + X
   2. Enter the assignment X = 43
   3. For result press Ctrl+Enter
RedCrab displays the result: 64

The display shows:
    17+4+X=64
             X=43

The assignment can be entered at any position

1.3 Exponent
   The expression: c = a 2 + 4 2
Note: (a) was set to 3 (a=3) in 1.1 Example 1 and Example 2 above

   1. Enter the expression: c = a Ctr+2 +4 Ctr+2 + =
   2. Press Ctrl+Enter to display result
The display shows:
    c=3 2+4 2=25

The keys Ctrl+2 write the exponent 2. With the keys Ctrl+3 you can write the exponent 3. For use of any other values for exponents, press the Ctrl+6 keys or click the Superscript Button to enter the Super mode. Then enter the exponent value. Press Ctrl+6 or Enter or click the Superscript Button to leave the super mode

1.4 Subscript and Implied Multiplication
   Enter the formula: XL = ωL

   1. Press the following keys : X Ctr+_ L Enter = Ctrl+W L =
   2. Enter the assignment ω=2πf ; press the keys : Ctrl+W =2 Ctrl+P f
   3. Enter the assignment f = 2200
   4. Enter the assignment L=0.8 10-3; press the keys : L = 0.8 10 Ctrl+6 -3 Enter
   5. Press the keys Ctrl+Enter
   With the keys Ctrl+_ (underscore) you can switch Subscript on / off. Alternative use Enter to leave Subscript region.

The Ctrl key shifts the letters to the alternative font. The example above shows that the keys Ctrl+P displayed the Hellenic letter Pi (π)

The display shows:
Impl Mult
The example shows one more feature of RedCrab: the implied multiplication. That means you do not need to include the multiplication operator

Example: RedCrab interprets XL = ωL as XL= ω* L
RedCrab interprets a sequuence of letters, for example, ab, as different variable. Exclude subscript letters, for example XL. Subscript letters always belong to the variable on the left
Example:

    abc: a * b * c

    3ab : 3 * a * b

    2XL= 2 * XL

    R1R2 = R1 * R2

Use the Escape mode if you want a sequence of letters for a a single variable. Read more about the Escape mode in the description below. you want a sequence of letters for a single variable. Read more about the Escape mode in the description below

1.5 Fraction and Square Root
   Enter a formula with a fraction and a square root

   1. Enter the fraction line and the numerator : f = Ctrl +/ Enter 1 Enter
   2. Enter the denominator : 2 Ctrl+P Ctrl + 1 LC
   3. Assignment L : L=0.8 10 Ctrl+6 -3
   4. Assignment C: C=4.7 10 Ctrl+6 -6
   5. Press Ctrl+Enter for result
The display shows:
SqRt

To write a fraction line press Ctrl+/ (forward slash) key. Read more information below about fractions in the description

The keys Ctrl+1 write a root symbol at the cursor position, and then mark the range which should be below the root. Click the root symbol and the editor draw the root line above the marked range. Read more information about square roots in the description below

1.6 Hexadecimal Input
   The RedCrab editor accepts input of hexadecimal numbers up to 13 digits. The hexadecimal number must mark with a dollar symbol before it. The use of small or capital letters are allowed

Example:
    $1F2A or 1f2a

You can use a hexadecimal number in any position of a formula like decimal numbers. Between the hexadecimal number and the following number or variable must be a space or operator symbol

Example:

Correct: $1F2A*X or $1F2A X

Wrong: $1F2AX => generate an error message

1.7 Operators

   RedCrabs enable you to enter numbers and functions in a simple, straightforward sequence. The table below shows the order in which functions in expressions are entered and evaluated

   1 SIN( ), NOT( ), root... and all functions left of the argument
   2 X2 , .. ,
   3 join
   4 *, /, DIV, MOD, AND, SHL, SHR, INCL, EXCL,
   5 +, -, OR, XOR

Within a priority group, RedCrab evaluates functions from left to right. Calculations within a pair of parentheses are evaluated first
 

2.0 The ToolbboxToolbox


2.1 Fonts
   The editor used the New Courier and Symbol fonts. They are usually included with Windows operating system. New Courier is the default font. The Symbol font includes Hellenic lettters and special symbols

 A Omega You can togglle between the fonts by mouse click on the A and Ω buttons, left on the toolbar, or press Ctrl+.(dot) keys. The button of the activated font is displayed in blue

   Usually the New Courier font is in use. Alternative font is generally needed for certain Hellenic letter or special symbols. Without switching the font you can type in single letter of the alternative font by pressing the Ctrl key
Example:
press Ctrl+P to write the character  π or Ctrl+L to write the letter  λ. Conversely, if the Symbol font is switched on, press Ctrl key to use New Couurier font

2.2 Font Size
 font size Next to the Font buttons the toolbox show the font size. You can change the font size with use of the combo button at the right or write the new font size in the box. The maximal font size is 512..

2.3 Superscript
 SuperscriptUse Superscript to write an exponent Toggle the Superscript mode per mouse click on the toolbox
 X2  button

   If you click the button when the cursor is on a character, the character under the cursor changed from normal letters in superscript. The Superscript mode is not enabled in this case, only the sign is changed. Similarly, the character can be reseted by superscript in normal font

As described above you can change selected cells to Superscript or reset

Alternate key functions:

 •  Function key Ctrl+6 enabled / disabled Superscript mode
 •  Function key F3 enabled / disabled Superscript mode
 •  The Enter key leave the Superscript mode
 •  Superscript mode disabled if you enter a non alpha numeric sign. Same thing if you select cells

2.4 Subscript
To write name extensions in Subscript mode click on the toolbox X2 buttonSuscript

   If you click the button when the cursor is on a character, the character under the cursor changed from normal letters in subscript. The Subscript mode is not enabled in this case, only the sign is changed. Similarly, the character can be reseted by Subscript in normal font

As described above you can change selected cells to Subscript or reset

The underscore_ key and Ctrl+_ (underscore) toggles Subscript too
Alternate key functions:

 •  The underscore_ key and Ctrl+_ (underscore) toggles Subscript too
 •  Subscript mode can be enabled / disabled using the function key F4
 •  The Enter key leaves the Subscript mode
 •  Subscript mode disabled if you entering a non alpha numeric sign. Same thing if you select cells

2.5 Escape
 Esc A mouse click on the Esc button toggles the Escape mode. You can leave the Escape mode with the Enter key. If the editor is in Escape and Superscript mode the Enter key leaves Escape mode only

Read below the description about Escape mode

2.6 DEG / RAD

 DegRadThe DEG and RAD buttons select the input to a trigonometric function

DEG : input must be in degrees.
RAD : input must be in radians

The selected button is displayed in blue

2.7 Exponent -EXP

Exponent
Exp If the EXP button switched on (displayed blue), the calculator write the result as power of ten

2.8 Decimal Digits
 DecDig Next to the EXP button you can change the number of decimal digits in your result. To change the decimal digits click the up/down button right or change the number in the display. RedCrab stores different number of digits for fix-and floating point results

2.9 Fix-/ Floating point results
 FixFlt Choose between fix-and floating point results with mouse click on the FIX / FLT buttons
 •  FIX : fix point
 •  FLT : floating point

2.10 Hexadecimal Output
 Hex Press the HEX button to show results as hexadecimal number. RedCrab can display hex numbers up to 13 digits. Any numbers more than 13 digits will be displayed as error message

Left hand zeros of positive numbers will not be displayed. Only one left hand F by negative numbers will be displayed with a Minus symbol

Example:
Decimal: -2 => Hexadecimal Result $FFFFFFFFFFFFE
Displayed as: $FE

2.11 Clear
 Clear The Clear function clears the worksheet and the undo memory

   The Clear function clears the worksheet and the undo list, without prompting. Instead data are stored in the startup directory in a file named redcrab.his. If the Clear button was clicked by mistake, the worksheet can be restored with Reopen function in the File menu

2.12 Reset
 Reset Reset clear all calculators output (displayed in blue). It don't change the user input. It's equal to the F7 key

2.13 Enter
 Enter Enter start the calculator and display the result. It's equal to the F8 and Ctrl+Enter keys

 

3.0 Function Panel

 FunctPnl The following section describes the function panels buttons. The panels can pop up or retract with the  +  or  -  symbols. With Move arrows ,the button bar can be slid up or down

All the features of these panels can also be entered via the keyboard. Read the description of the Escape and Long Term mode

3.1 Number PanelNumPnl
   The following part describes the Number panel buttons. Alternative you can use the keyboard to execute the panel functions

AC.Clear Clears the the mathematical expression at cursor position


Backspace.BackSpace


Linefeed-Return:Line Return moves the cursor to the first column at the next free row


Space.Space


All other number and operator buttons function as shown

3.2 Scientific Panel
   The following part descriibes the Function panel buttons. Alternative you can use the keyboard to write the functions to the editor. Use the ESC or LongTerm Mode (Menu: Option.Long_Term). Read the description about Escape mode below

If you are not using the Function panel, you can switch this off under the View.Function_Panel menu

Scientific Functions

Sin()
Cos()
Tan()
ArcSin()
ArcCos()
ArcTan()
Deg()
Rad()
Cot()
Exp()
Ln()
Log()
Log2()
Log8()
Log16()
sine
cosine
tangent
inverse sine
inverse cosine
inverse tangent
convert radians to degrees
convert degrees to radians
cotangent
Exp()exponent to Euler's constant : 2.71828182845904452...
natural logarithms to base e (2,71828182845904 452...)
logarithms base 10
logarithms base 2
logarithms base 8
logarithms base 16
SciPnl

Extended Functions

   E Euler's connstant : 2.7182818284590452...
   p constant P PI: 3.1415....
   ld() logarithms base 2
   lg() logarithms base 10 (equal to log )
   log10() logarithms base 10 (equal to log )

3.3 Symbol PanelSymPnl
The Symbol Panel contained symbols, you can write with the keyboard too. But problem may arise by any non English keyboard or language. For more information about the keyboard read below the description about keyboard configuration

 Root This button writes the Root symbol to the cursor position. It�s equivalent to    < Ctrl +1 > keys. For more information read paragraph 17.6 Root

 Squared This button writes exponent < 2 > to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +2 > keys

 Cubed This button writes exponent < 3 > to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +3 > keys

 10x This button writes the symbols < *10 > to the cursor position and switched in the Super mode to input the exponent

 Pi This button writes the π symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +p > keys

 Sum This button writes the sum (Σ) symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +s > keys

 FractLn This button writes a Fraction line to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl + / > keys

 LParen This button writes the Left Parenthesis symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +9 > keys



 RParen This button writes the Right Parenthesis symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +0 > keys



 LftSqBrkt This button writes the Left Square Bracket symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +[ > keys



 RBrkt This button writes the Right Square Bracket symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl +] > keys



 LftCurlyBrkt This button writes the Left Curly Bracket symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl + Shift +[ > keys

 Sum This button writes the sum (sigma) symbol to the cursor position. It is equivalent to < Ctrl + Shift +] keys

This button writes different brackets to the cursor position. Dependant on selection (small or large), brackets will be displayed either in normal font size or triple row size

Details can be found under paragraph 5.0 Keyboard

The Symbol panel contains extra large brackets which are not included in ANSI fonts. The following list shows the key codes for the English US keyboard:

   • Ctrl + '9' ( Left round bracket
   • Ctrl + '0' ) Right round bracket
   • Ctrl + '[' [ Left square bracket
   • Ctrl + ']' ] Right square bracket
   • Ctrl + Shift + '[' { Left curly bracket
   • Ctrl + Shift + ']' } Right curly bracket

 

4.0 Programmer PanelPrgPnl

The following part describes the Programmer panel buttons. Alternative you can use the keyboard to execcute the panel functions. Read the description about Escapee mode below

The following Programmer functions and operators (excep pt Int, Frac and Round) perform manipulation on integer operands. If the operands real type numbers, the values are rounded toward zero

Operator
4.1 Div
 Div The Div operator returns the result of an integer number division without remainder. If floating point numbers are entered, the Div operrator cuts off all digits after the decimal point before executing the division [Div]

Example:

11 Div 3 =3

11.2 Div 3.9 = 3

4.2 Mod
 Mod The Mod operator returns the remainder of the division of two integer numbers. If floating point numbers are entered, the Mod operator cuts off all digits after the decimal point before executing the division Mod

Example:

11 Mod3 =2

11.7 Mod 3.9 = 2

4.3 And
 And The logical And operator performs bitwise And manipulation on integer operands

Example:
Z = X And Y

4.4 Or
 Or The logical Or operator performs bitwise Or manipulation on integer operands

Example:
Z = X Or Y

4.5 Xor
 Xor The logical Xor operator performs bitwise Xor manipulation on integer operands

Example:
Z = Xor Y

4.6 Shl / Shr
The SHL or SHR operator shift bitwise left or right manipulation on integer operands. The value of Y is interpreted modulo 32. Thus for example, if X is 40, X is interpreted as 8 because 40 mod 32 is 8

   Examples:
   Z = X shl Y
   9 shl 2 = 36

4.7 Incl
 Incl The Incl operator adds a bit to the integer operands
Example: Z = X INCL Y
In the example above INCL sets the bit number Y in operant X
Example: 8 INCL 3 = 12

4.8 Excl
 Excl The Excl operator excludes a bit from an integer operands

   Example: Z = X EXCL Y
In the example above EXCL clears the bit number Y in operant X
   Example: 15 EXCL 4 = 7

Functions

4.9 Not
 Squared The logical NOT function performs bitwise negation on integer operands
Example: Z = NOT(X)

4.10 Trunc

 Trunc The Trunc function truncates a real-type value to an integer--type value. The values are rounded toward zero. function truncates a real-type value to an integer-type value. The values are rounded toward zero

Example: TRUNC(123.67) = 123

4.11 Hex
 Hex This button writes the $ symbol for hexadecimal input to cursor position. More information can be found under paragraph 1.9 Hexadecimal Input

 

5.0 Standard Functions PanelStdPnl
5.1 Round
 Squared Round returns a value rounded to the nearest whole number

   Example: x=round(y)
   round(2.6 6)=3
   round(3.5 5)=4
   round(2.5 5)=2

If y is exactly halfway between two whole numbers, the result is always the even number. This method of rounding is often called "Banker's rounding"

5.2 Int
 Squared Int returns the integer part of a value; that is, the value rounded toward zero

Example: x= int(y)
   x=int(4.67)=4

5.3 Frac
 Squared Frac returns the fractional part of an argument.

Example: x=frac(y)
   x=frac(4.67)=0.67

5.4 Rnd
 Squared Rnd returns a random integer number within the range 0 < = X <= Range
Example: x=rnd(y)

5.5 URnd
 Squared URnd fills a field with a series of random numbers between 0 and the highest argument of the field. In contrast to Rnd, which also can be used for fields, URnd returns a set of unique numbers

   Example:
   a=urnd([1..5,45])
   b=urnd([44..45])

Both examples return a list of six different numbers between 1 and 45

5.6 Abs
 Squared Abs returns the absolute value of numbers and fields

   Example:
   x=abs(y)
   x=abs(4.56) =4.56
   x=abs(-4.56)=4.56

 

6.0 Fields PanelFldPnl
Operators
6.1 Join
 Squared The operator Join connects one or two-dimensional fields with each other. The result contains the sum of the rows of the first and second operand
Excample: a=[1..5 5]= 12345
b=[6..1 10] = 678910
c=a joi in b= 1234 5
6 7 8 9 10

If the fields are different lengths, the shorter field is filled with zeros

x = [11.. .18] = 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7

d=x join c = 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7
1 2 3 4 5 0 00
6 7 8 910 0 00

6.2 Mulx
 Squared Mulx is an operator for multiplication of matrices. Multiplication of two matrices
with Mulx is possible only if the number of columns of the left matrix is the same as the number of rows of the right matrix

Example:

The result is a matrix whose entries are given by dot product of the corresponding row of the left operand and the corresponding column of the right operand:

(1*2 + 2*3 + 3*6) (1*4+ 2*5 + 3*8)
(4*2 + 5*3 + 6*6) (4*4+ 5*5 + 6*8)
(7*2 + 8*3 + 9*6) (7*4+ 8*5 + 9*8)

More Information about multiplication of matrices:

1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_multiplication
2) The description of the function Trans.

6.3 Fill
 Squared The result of the operator Fill is a data field the size of the left operand. The field contains values specified by the right operand

Example: x = [1..5] fill 8= 88888

6.4 Patt
 Squared The result of the operator Patt is a data field the size of the left operand. The field contains continuous values of the right field operand

Example: x = [1..10] patt [1,1,2] = 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

6.10 Trans
 Squared Trans producing the transpose of a matrix AT, which is computed by swapping columns for rows in the matrix X

Example:

147
trans(x)== 2 5 8
369

For more information read: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M Matrix_transpose

6.11 Min , Max
Min (minimum) and Max (maximum) return the value at which the minimum or maximum value of one� or multidimensional fields
Example: z=min(x)
x= [9,7,2 2,8,12,3,5]
min(x) = 2
max(x) = 12

6.12 Count
 Squared Count returns the number of elements of one� or multidimensionnal fields

Example:
z=count(x x)
x= [9,7,2 2,8,12,3,5]
count(x) = 7

6.13 Aver
 Squared The function Aver returns the mean values of successive elements of fields. The result is always one element smaller than the original field

Example:
a = [1..5]2 = 1 4 9 16 25
b= aver(a) = 2.5 6.5 12.5 20.5

6.14 AddIn
 Squared The operator AddIn returns a data field with a linear series of numbers. The length of the field corresponds to the left operand. The first number is taken from the first element of the left operand. The following values are incremented by the value of the right operand

Example:
[4..8] addin 0.5 = 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

The left operand�s first element defines the start value; the following values have no significance. They are place holders to determine the size of the field
The following example shows therefore the same result as above

Example:
[4..0] addin 0.5 = 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

A descending sequence of numbers generated by a negative operand

Example:
[4..8] addin -0.5 = 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0

6.15 AddTo
 Squared The operator AddTo returns a data field that contains a linear series of numbers. The
series begins with the first value of the left operand and is incremented by the value of the right operand to the next value of the left operand

Example:
[4,7] addto 0.5= 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0

[4,1] addto 0.5= 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0

[4,6,5] addto 0.5= 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 5.5 5.0

6.16 AddOn
 Squared The function AddOn adds any value of a continuous series of numbers to the next value

Example: addon([10,30,25,-10,15]) = 10 40 65 55 70

6.17 MulIn
 Squared The operator MulIn returns a data field with a logarithmic series of numbers. The number of values corresponds to the numbers of the left operand. The first number is taken from the first element of the left operand. The following values are each the product of multiplication by the right operand

Example: [2..8] mulin 2.0= 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

The left operand�s first element defines the start value; the following values have no significance. They are place holders to determine the size of the field.
The following example shows therefore the same result as above

Example: [2..-4] mulin 2.0= 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

Descending sequence of numbers generated by a value < 1

[2..8] mulin 0.5= 2.0 1.0 0.50 0.25 0.13 0.06 0.03

6.18 MulTo
 Squared The operator MulTo returns a data field with a series of logarithmic numbers. The series begins with the first value of the left operand and is gradually multiplied by the value of the right operand till the value of the next operand is reached
Example:

[1,150] multo 2 = 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

[150,3] multo 0.5 = 150 75 37.5 18.8 9.38 4.69

For ascending order, right operand must be >, for a descending order the right
operand must be < 1. Negative values and the values 0 and 1 are not allowed

6.19 MulAd
 Squared The operator MulAd returns a series of numbers where each value of the left operand first multiplied by the right operand, and added to the next value

Example:

x=[1..5] fill 100 =100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

y=x mulad 1.1 = 110.00 231.00 364.10 510.51 671.56

The right operand can be a one-dimensional field

 

7.0 Statistics PanelStatsPnl
7.1 Sum
 Sum The function Sum returns the sum of the elements in fields. The function can be called by the Greek letter  Σ
Example: z= sum(x)

X = [9,7,2,8,12,3,5]
sum(x) = 46
Σ(x) = 46

7.2 Prod
 Prod Prod returns the product of all elements of fields
Example: z=prod(x)
X = [9,7,2,8,12,3,5]
prod(x) = 181440

7.3 Cusum
 Cusum The function CUSUM returns the calculation of a cumulative sum of one-dimensional fields

Example: z= cusum(x)

cusum([2,4,7,3,9])= -3 -4 -2 -4 0

For more information read : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CUSUM

7.4 Sort, DSort
 Sort Sort sorts field elements from low to high values (sort ascending). DSort sorts field elements from high to low values (sort descending). Complex fields are sorted based on first row values
 DSort 

Example: z= sort(x)

7.5 Median
 Squared Median returns the median value of fields. In multidimensional fields the result is the median of all elements

Example: z= median(x)

7.6 Mean
 Mean The result of Mean is the mean value of field. In multidimensional fields the result is the mean of all elements

Example: z= mean(x)

7.7 Vari / SVari
 Vari The result of Vari and SVari is the variance of values in one-dimensional fields. Use Vari if the field contains all evaluated data. SVari is more applicable for samples
 SVari 

Example: z= vari(x)

For more infomation read: href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variance

7.8 StDev / SStDev
 StDev StDev returns the standard deviation of values in one-dimensional fields. Use StDev if the field contains all evaluated data. SStDev is more applicable for samples
 StDev 

Example: z= stdev(x)

For more information, read: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation

7.9 Diff
 Diff Diff returns the difference values of successive elements of fields. Diff subtracts the first field element from the second, the second element from the third, etc.. The field of the difference values is always one element shorter than the original field

Example: z= diff(x)

X= rnd([11..20]) = 15 19 18 2 11 12 20
Solution: 15-19=4, 19-18=-1, 18-2=-16, 2-11=9, 11-12=1, 12-20=8

diff(x) = 4 -1 -16 9 1 8

7.10 LQuart
 Squared LQuart returns the value of the first quartile (lower quartile) of a sorted list. In the following example in a field of 10 elements, the position of the first quartile is (10 x 1/4) = 2.5, rounded up to 3

Example: lquart([3,6,7,8,8,10,13,15,16,20]) = 7

7.11 UQuart
 Squared UQuart returns the value of the third quartile (upper quartile) of a sorted list. In the following example, in a field of 10 elements the position of the third quartile is (10 x 3/4 ) = 7.5, rounded up to 8

Example: lquart([3,6,7,8,8,10,13,15,16,20]) = 15

7.12 QRan
 Squared QRan results the area from the first to 3rd quartiles of a sorted list. The following example shows the result of a field with 10 elements

Example: lquart([3,6,7,8,8,10,13,15,16,20])
= 7 8 8 10 13 15

 

8.0 Keyboard
The keyboard inputs in the following description correspond to the English keyboard and Windows regional and language option English-US. When using a non-English keyboard or language, some functions are acquired with other key combinations. This concern most of the Ctrl key functions. In the attachment of this manual you will find pictures about key codes of different keyboards. Read the description below about keyboard configurations

8.1 Key Codes
Esc Switch to escape mode.
To exit escape mode: press enter key or bracket open

 
Enter . . . . . . . . . .
Enter . . . . . . . . . .
Enter . . . . . . . . . .
Enter . . . . . . . . . .
Enter . . . . . . . . . .
Enter . . . . . . . . . .
Enter + Ctrl . . . . .
Enter + Shift. . . . .
Ctrl + (Shift). . . . .
Ctrl + . . . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + , . . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + _. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + Shift + , . . .
Ctrl + 6. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + 9. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + 0. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + [. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + ]. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + Shift + { . . .
Ctrl + Shift + } . . .
Ctrl + /. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + 1. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + 2. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + 3. . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + 4 . . . . . . . . .
Ctrl + Shift + 4 . . .
Ctrl + 5. . . . . . . . .
Insert . . . . . . . . . .
Insert + Shift. . . . .
Delete. . . . . . . . . .
Delete + Shift . . . .
Ctrl + Csr left . . . .
Ctrl + Csr right . . .
Ctrl + Csr up. . . . .
Ctrl + Csr down. . .
Ctrl + Page up . . . .
Ctrl + Page down . .
F2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
F3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
F4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
F5. . . . . . . . . . . . .
F6. . . . . . . . . . . . .
F7. . . . . . . . . . . . .
F8. . . . . . . . . . . . .
-Exit escape mode
-Exit Superscript
-Exit Subscript
-Moves cursor to numerator, if this position is end of fraction bar,
-Moves cursor to denominator, if this position in the numerator row.
-Moves cursor to end of fraction, if this position at the denominators row.
-Display result Equal to the Function panels Enter button
-Line feed-return : move the cursor to the first used column in the next row
-switch to alternative font
-Toggle ANSI / Symbol font
-Toggle on / off Subscrips
-Toggle on / off Subscript (equal Ctrl + ,)
-Toggle on / off Superscript (exponent)
-Toggle on / off Superscript (equal Ctrl + Shift + ,)
-large round bracket open
-large round bracket close
-large square bracket open
-large square bracket close
-large curly bracket open
-large curly bracket close
-fraction line
-root
-Exponent 2
-Exponent 3
-Integral Formula
-Integral Symbol
-Function Symbol
-Insert a column at cursor position
-Insert a row at cursor position
-Delete a column at cursor position
-Delete a row at cursor position
-Page left
-Page right
-Scroll up
-Scroll down
-Move cursor to the first row of the screen
-Move cursor to the last row of the screen
-Marked/Unmarked the selected range or cursor position as remark
-Enable or disable Superscript mode
-Enable or disable Subscript mode
-AC - Clears the the mathematical expression at cursor position
-Clear - clear all
-Reset - clear the output of the calculator
-Enter - starts the calculator

8.2 Greek Letter Codes

  Code
Ctrl + A
Ctrl + B
Ctrl + C
Ctrl + D
Ctrl + E
Ctrl + F
Ctrl + G
Ctrl + H
Ctrl + I
Ctrl + A
Ctrl + K
Ctrl + L
Ctrl + M
Ctrl + N
Ctrl + O
Ctrl + P
Ctrl + Q
Ctrl + R
Ctrl + S
Ctrl + T
Ctrl + U
Ctrl + W
Ctrl + X
Ctrl + Y
Ctrl + Z

  Capital
Α
Β
Γ
Δ
Ε
Ζ
Η
Θ
Ι
Κ
Λ
Μ
Ν
Ξ
Ο
Π
Ρ
΢
Σ
Τ
Υ
Φ
Χ
Ψ
Ω

 Small
 α
 β
 γ
 δ
 ε
 ζ
 η
 θ
 ι
 κ
 λ
 μ
 ν
 ξ
 ο
 π
 ρ
 ς
 σ
 τ
 υ
 φ
 χ
 ψ
 ω

 Letter
 Alpha
 Beta
 Chi
 Delta
 Epsilon
 Phi
 Gamma
 Eta
 Iota
 Alpha
 Kappa
 Lamda
 Mu
 Nu
 Omicron
 Pi
 Theta
 Rho
 Sigma
 Tau
 Upsilon
 Omega
 Xi
 Psi
 Zeta

Ctrl + C c C Chi Copies the selected area *
Ctrl + J j Phi (alt.)
Ctrl + J J Theta (alt.)
Ctrl + U u U Upsilon
Ctrl + V v Pi (alt.) Insert text from clipboard *
Ctrl + V V Sigma (alt.)
Ctrl + W w W Omega
Ctrl + X x X Xi Cut and copies the selected area *
Ctrl + Y y Y Psi
Ctrl + Z z Z Zeta

*)
Ctrl + C copies the selected area to clipboard. Ctrl + X cuts the selected area and copies it to the clipboard. If no area is selected, the corresponding Greek letter is written

Ctrl + V writes the text from the clipboard to the cursor position if, immediately before a text with Ctrl + C / X was copied, otherwise the corresponding Greek letter is written

The decimal key below the numeric keypad (point / comma) produces a decimal point always, regardless of the country setting

 

The Menu BarMenu Bar

10.0 File MenuFile Menu

10.1 Open

Click Open on the File menu. In the Navigation pane, click folder or drive that contains the file that you want to open. You can only load file that are saved with RedCrab before, with the file extension *.rcc

10.2 Reopen
Reopen function opens the last deleted file

The Clear function clears the worksheet and the undo list, without prompting. Instead data are stored in the startup directory in a file named redcrab.his. If the Clear button was clicked by mistake, the worksheet can be restored with Reopen function

10.3 Save
If you are saving a changed file click Save on the File menu or press Ctrl+Alt+S

10.4 SaveAs
If you are saving the file for the first time use SaveAs on the File menu, the file browser prompt for a file name

10.5 Print a worksheet
The right picture shows the print dialog box. By default, 64 columns
per page are printed. The number of rows depends on the siize of the
page. By entering a different value, you can increase or
decrease the printer output.

With the button All you print the working area of the worksheet
from position (1.1). If necessary, the worksheet is split int to several
pages. The layout of the pages is shown in the following table.

If the button Page is selected, individual pages can be printed.

With the button Selection you can print selected area of the worksheets. The
print-out is positioned on n the top of the page. Center Selection prints the
selected area at the center of the page.

With the check box Fit to page the print-out is adjusted to the page size.
The Columns per Page setting is ignoring. A small selected area a can so enlarged
to the width or height of the page. Similarly, a print-out what normally occupied
several pages are reduced to one page.

Page 1 Page 2 Page 3
Column 1..64 Column 65..1128 Column 129..192
Row 1..68 Row 1..68 Row 1..68PgSetup
Page 4 Page 5 Page 6
Column 1..64 Column 64.. .128 Column 129..192
Row 69..136 Row 69..136 Row 69..136

10.5.1 Page Settup
With Page Setup you can set the margins width and paper format.

10.5.2 Printer Setup
Select the printer and the printer settings.

 
11.0 Edit MenuEdit Menu
11.1 Undo / Redo
You can undo and redo your action by clicking Undo or Redo on the Edit menu.
You can undo and redo up to 100 actions. Undo and Redo is not possible by
imported object like bitmaps.

11.2 Copy / Paste
With the Copy and Paste functions you can copy and insert data within RedCrab
or from/to external programs. The Copy function copies the selected fields to the
clipboard. Texts from/to external programs will posted as unformatted ASCII
text.

Within RedCrab the data are copied in format style. Exception: square root.
With Paste function only the symbol of the square root is inserted. The range
belonging to this field must be selected at the new position again. Hence errors
can be avoided, e.g. only the sub range square of a root is copied and inserted to
other position.

11.3 Paste to Box
For complex technical calculations, it may be useful to include technical
drawings to mathematical formulas. With Paste to Box on menu Edit you can
import images and formatted texts from external programs. The image or the
formatted text is inserted into a box and can be positioned freely. Multiple
images or text boxes can be inserted. The amount is limited only by resources of
your computer.

To change a box position, move the mouse pointer on a box, press the left
mouse button and pull with pressed mouse button the box into the desired
position.

Text and Images boxes are deleted with Delete on a popup menu. Open the
menu with click on right mouse button, and then choose Delete.

Information about the import of images and text files can be found below under
Menu Insert.

11.3.1 Text Box
To edit the text or change the size of text box, text box must be active. Activate
the text box with double-click of the left mouse button. The background of the
activated text box will displayed coloured and the text cursor is indicated.

To change the size of the text box, position the mouse pointer on the lower right
corner of the box and drag the box with pressed right mouse button to the
desired size. The area to draw the text boxes is displayed with a NW-mouse
pointer. Information for editing text can be found below at Chapter text editing.

Click the right mouse button to open the text box�s popup menu. The text box
must be activated first

Popup Menu:

• Word Wrap: Word wrap on / off
• Lock Text: text edit is disabled.
• Scroll Bars: scroll bars on / off
• Font: open Font Dialog to change the font type, size and colour.
• Delete Text Box: delete the text box.
If the editing of the box and text is completed, deactivate the box with double-click on the left mouse button

11.3.2 Text Editing
For editing of text the following table shows a list of keyboard instructions.
 

Keys
Ctrl + Tab
Ctrl + Number Pad 5
Ctrl + A
Ctrl + E
Ctrl + J
Ctrl + R
Ctrl + L
Ctrl + C
Ctrl + V
Ctrl + X
Ctrl + Z
Ctrl + Y
Ctrl + '+'
Ctrl + '='
Ctrl + 1
Ctrl + 2
Ctrl + 5
Ctrl + '
Ctrl + `
Ctrl + ~
Ctrl + ;
Ctrl + Shift+6
Ctrl + ,
Ctrl + Shift + '
Backspace
Ctrl + Backspace
F16
Ctrl + Insert
Shift + Insert
Insert
Ctrl + Left Arrow
Ctrl + Right Arrow
Ctrl + Left Shift
Ctrl + Right Shift
Ctrl + Up Arrow
Ctrl + Down Arrow
Ctrl + Home
Ctrl + End
Ctrl + Page Up
Ctrl + Page Down
Ctrl + Delete
Shift + Delete

Operations
Tab
Select all
Select all
Center alignment
Justify alignment
Right alignment
Left alignment
Copy
Paste
Cut
Undo
Redo
Superscript
Subscript
Line spacing = 1 line
Line spacing = 2 lines
Line spacing = 1.5 lines
(apostrophe) Accent acute
(grave) Accent grave
(tilde) Accent tilde
(semicolon) Accent umlaut
Accent caret (circumflex)
(comma) Accent cedilla
(apostrophe)Activate smart quotes
Delete previous character
Delete previous word
Same as Backspace
Copy
Paste
Overwrite
Move cursor one word to the left
Move cursor one word to the right
Left alignment
Right alignment
Move to the line above
Move to the line below
Move to the beginning of the document
Move to the end of the document
Move one page up
Move one page down
Delete the next word or selected characters
Cut the selected characters

Alt + X
Converts the Unicode hexadecimal value preceding the insertion
point to the corresponding Unicode character.
Alt + Shift + X
Converts the Unicode character preceding the insertion point to
the corresponding Unicode hexadecimal value.
Alt + 0xxx
(Number Pad)
Inserts Unicode values if xxx is greater than 255.
Inserts ASCI values if xxx is less than 256
Ctrl + Shift + A Set all caps.
Ctrl + Shift + L Fiddle bullet style.
Ctrl + Shift + Right Arrow increase font size
Ctrl + Shift + Left Arrow decrease font size

11.4 Cut/Delete
With functions Cut and Delete on the Edit menu the selected range on the
computing sheet is deleted. With Cut the range is copied in the clipboard and
can be inserted in other position again.

 

12.0 View MenuInsert Menu
12.1 Grid
You can show or hide gridlines. Use Grid on the View menu to switch the grid
on / off.

12.2 Undock Function Panel
The function panel can be displayed within the main window or as new
window.

This function is activated through Menu Undock_Function_Panel or by double
clicks on the function panel.

12.3 Function Panel
Switch the Function Panel on / off with click on Function Panel on the View
menu

12.4 Virtual Keyboard
Switch the Virtual Keyboard on / off with click on Virtual Keyboard on the
View menu.

 

13.0 Insert MenuInsert Menu
13.1 Image File
Load a graphic file. For complex technical calculations, it may be useful to include technical drawings to mathematical formulas. Click Image File in the Insert menu to open the image file browser and select the image file. RedCrab can imports photos from Jpeg files (*.jpg) and Windows Bitmap files (*. bmp). The Jpeg format is not suitable for technical drawings. It creates blurred images around edges and errors in the transparency of the images. When RedCrab saving files that includes bitmap images, RedCrab compressed images without loss and they are usually smaller than jpeg format.

Inserted image is positioned on the top left of the page. You can move it by clicking the left mouse button on the image and drag, while holding down the mouse button, the image to the desired position.

Text and Images boxes are deleted with Delete on a popup menu. Open the menu with click on right mouse button then choose Delete.

Click the right mouse button to open the image box�s popup menu.
Popup Menu:

� Transparent: displays the image with a transparent background. This
function works only if the image has a background defined and all
textboxes in deactivated mode.
� Delete: delete the box.

13.2 Text File
For documentation purposes, text files can be inserted in any position in text
box.

To load a text file click Text File on menu Insert. It opens a file browser to
select a file. Files of the type TXT (unformatted text) or RTF (Rich Text
Format) can be inserted.

The text is inserted in a text box positioned on the top left corner at the
calculation sheet. To move the text box, position the cursor on the text box and
press the left mouse key. Then drag the box in the desired position by holding
down the left mouse button. . Multiple text boxes can be inserted. The amount is
limited only by resources of your computer.

Text and Images boxes are deleted with Delete on a popup menu. Open the
menu with click on right mouse button then choose Delete.

Text boxes are always inserted in a preset size. You can resize the box according
to text size. It is possible to edit the texts in the text box. For information about
resize and edit textboxes read Textbox Editing above.

13.3 New Textbox
With New Textbox on menu Insert an empty text box will be inserted. To input
text the box must be activated with a double click of the left mouse button. For
more information about text box editing read the capital Text Box above.
13.4 Textbox to Image
The function text Box to Image converts a text box into an image box. The
advantage of a graphics box is:

1) The texts cannot be changed.
2) The formatted text is displayed in original format (similar to a PDF file),
even if the displayed font is not installed on the user computer.

The function should only be used if it makes sense. By changing the format of
the file, the file size will be larger.

! Important: This function cannot be reversed!

13.5 Show Textbox
The function Show Text box in the menu Insert displayed all text boxes with a coloured background. The function is helpful in allocating an empty text box or
showing the exact positioning.

13.6 Result box
With Result boxes you can display formatted results of calculations on any work sheet position. Click Result box on the Insert menu to open a result box.

Example: If the result of a calculation is a distance of 3650 meters, RedCrab
write: = 3650 or: = 3.65 103 in the work sheet.

A result box can show the display format: = 3.65km.

A result box can be displayed on any position. So you can insert results directly on technical drawings. Result text can be displayed vertically, horizontally or
inclined position. The size of the box is auto fitted to the size of the text.

13.6.1 Popup Menu
With click of the right mouse key you open the result box popup menu. The list below show an overview of the various functions.

Reference opens the Reference dialog box to enter the reference variable and pre setting of the display format .
Font opens the Font dialog box. Adjustment is dependant from the setting of the sync function
(see below).
Background opens a colour dialog box to choose
the result box background colour.
Transparent: displays the result box with a
transparent background.
Send to Back: moves the top object to other object below.
Bring to Front: ensures that a box is visible or to reorder overlapping boxes within a worksheet.
Undocked
Vertical: displays the result box content vertically.
Angle: opens a dialog box to adjust the slant of results display. It can be an angle in the range of + / -90 degrees, adjustable in 0.1 degree increments.
Grid sync: synchronizes the box to the worksheet.
Object sync: synchronizes the box to a Text or Image box.
Non sync: size and position of the box are freely adjustable.
Delete: deletes the box.

13.6.1.1 Reference and Format
The Reference popup menu opens the Reference dialog box to enter the reference variable and the display format instruction.

The row Reference variable show the name of the variable whose value is displayed in the box.

To determine the variable you select here the name on the worksheet. Then click the Paste button in the dialog box. The name is accepted and pasted to the reference row.

In the first example below the format row are empty. The Result box shows the same display format as the worksheet. But instead of the power
of ten, the box displays the SI-Prefix ,m�. The
result box background is displayed gray.

13.6.1.2 SI-Prefix
Result boxes used SI prefixes instead of exponents to reduce the number of zeros shown in numerical quantities before or after a decimal point. For example, an electrical current of 0.001ampere, or 10-3 of an ampere, is written by using the SI-prefix m (milli) as 1 milliampere or 1mA. The SI prefixes are standardized by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (IBWM).

The list below shows the prefixes which RedCrab used.

Prefix
  Prefix  Decimal Short scale Long scale 
 Y yotta 1024 1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000 Septillion Quadrillion 
 Z zetta 1021 1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000 Sextillion Trilliard 
 E exa 1018 1.000.000.000.000.000.000 Quintillion Trillion 
 P peta 1015 1.000.000.000.000.000 Quadrillion Billiard 
 T tera 1012 1.000.000.000.000 Trillion Billion 
 G giga 109 1.000.000.000 Billion Milliard 
 Mmega  106 1.000.000 Million Million 
 k kilo 103 1000 Thousand Thousand 
 h hecto 102 100 Hundred Hundred 
 - - - 1 One One  
 d deci 10-1 0,1 Tenth Tenth 
 c centi 10-2 0,01 Hundredth Hundredth 
 m milli 10-3 0,001 Thousandth Thousandth 
 u micro 10-6 0,000.001 Millionth Millionth 
 n nano 10-9 0,000.000.001 Billionth Milliardth 
 p pico 10-12 0,000.000.000.001 Trillionth Billionth 
 f femto 10-15 0,000.000.000.000.001 Quadrillionth Billiardth 
 a atto 10-18 0,000.000.000.000.000.001 Quintillionth Trillionth 
 z zepto 10-21 0,000.000.000.000.000.000.001 Sextillionth Trilliardth 
 y yocto 10-24 0,000.000.000.000.000.000.000.001 Septillionth Quadrillionth 
 
13.6.1.3 Formatting
In the Reference dialog box (described above) you can input control characters
in the Format row to control and completion of the display format. For the
example above among SI prefixes, the two characters, #A' are entered. The
pound sign (#) is a placeholder for the result and prefix: 12m (12 million), the A
stands for the unit ampere. The box shows the result: 12mA.

Before and after the pound you can insert any character. An exception is the
backslash symbol (\) because it has a special function.

Examples:

Result Formatted Text Result Box Display
0.012 12m
0.012 #A 12mA
0.012 = # A = 12 mA

125 US$ # US$ 125
0.012 Current: #A~ Current: 12mA~

13.6.1.4 Specification of a prefix
If the result of an expression is the distance between two points, the control
symbols, #m� displays the result in meters (m).

Examples:

Result: 365 Display: 365m
Result: 3600 Display: 3.6km
Result: 3650000 Display: 3.65Gm

The displayed result: 3.65Gm (Giga meter) is correct, but unusual. Therefore, in
RedCrab you can preset certain prefixes. This is written in the format text after
the pound, a backslash (\) followed by the preferred prefix. In this example, the
issue is better suited to kilometres, so the two characters � \k� are inserted. The
format string looks like this: '# \km'.

Examples:

Result: 365 Display: 0.365km
Result: 3600 Display: 3.6km
Result: 3650000 Display: 3650km

RedCrab also has the option to select a group of prefixes or to determine an
upper or lower limit. A '+' sign in front of the prefix determined the upper limit.
The formatting string, # \+km ' shows all results of 1000 or above in kilometres.
Results under 1000 are displayed according to the value in meters or millimetres
etc. A '-' sign in front of the prefix determined the lower limit. The two limits
can also be combined. The following examples show the output at a range
setting of millimetres to kilometres.

Example: Format = �# \-m\+k m�

Result: 3650000 Display: 3650 km
Result: 36500 Display: 36.5 km
Result: 365 Display: 365 m
Result: 3.65 Display: 3.65 m
Result: 0.0365 Display: 36.5 mm
Result: 0.000365 Display: 0.365 mm

The �x� symbol represents the base of an unit. The format string �#\-x\+km�
displays the result in meters or kilometres.

13.6.1.5 Format Commands
The list below shows the format commands.

$ Result displays hexadecimal
^ Displays the result with exponent
0..9 Number of decimal places
#.## Number of pounds after decimal point = number of fixed decimal places

Example:
Format: �#\$� Display: 8F3.
Format: �$#\$� Display: $8F3.
Format: �#\^� Display: 1.36 103
Format: #\^\4 Display: 1.368 103
Format: #.## Display: 1.20

13.6.2 Font and Background
13.6.2.1 Font
The Font menu opens a dialog box to adjust font settings. If the box
synchronisation is set to Grid sync, the Font menu opens a colour dialog box.
You can only change the font colour. All other font settings are as on the
worksheet.
In Object sync or Non sync mode, the Font menu opens a font dialog box. You
can adjust the font name, size, style and colour.

13.6.2.2 Background
The menu Background opens a colour dialog box to choose the result box
background colour.

13.6.2.3 Transparent
The menu Transparent displays the result box with a transparent background.

13.6.3 Positions
13.6.3.1 Send to Back � Bring to Front
Use Send to Back to change the order of overlapping result or image boxes.
Click Bring to Front to ensure that a box is visible or to reorder overlapping
boxes within a worksheet. For example if a result box is included in a technical
drawing, click the Send to Back menu for the image object to move it below the
result box. Fix the result box in foreground with a click on the Bring to Front
menu.

These settings will be saved if the worksheet store to a file. When you load the
worksheet from file, RedCrab restores the previous settings. For overlapping
boxes, it is important that Send to Back or Bring to Front is activated (the menu
shows the check mark).

13.6.3.2 Vertical
A click on menu Vertical, displays the result box content vertically. This
function is disabled, when Grid sync is selected.

13.6.3.3 Angle
The menu Angle opens a dialog box to adjust the slant of results display. It can be an angle in the
range of + / -90 degrees, adjustable in 0.1 degree increments. This function is disabled, when Grid
sync is selected.
13.6.4 Synchro onization
The properties and positions of Result boxes can be synchronized with the
worksheet or text and image boxes.

13.6.4.1 Grid sync
In Grid sync mode the position and font settings of the result box is synchronized with the worksheet. Grid sync is intended for formatted output
with prefix and unit instead of the default result display. The font settings are automatically adapted to the worksheet. If you change the worksheet font size,
the result box font size is changed accordingly. In the popup menu Font, the text colour can be changed.

RedCrab supports positioning on the worksheet. You can move the box in any position. After releasing the mouse button the box snap into place on a
worksheet position, where their text is exactly in line to the text on the worksheet.

13.6.4.2 Object sync
If the result box mode set to Object sync, the box position is synchronized to a text or image box. Thiis mode is suitable for positioning results within
engineering drawings. The synchronized result boxes always retain their position relative to the drawing when it is moved on the worksheet.

The popup menu Object sync opens a dialog box prompting user to determine the parent box which result box to be
synchronized. Click the left mouse button on the corresponding text or image box and then click the OK button
on the dialog box. The position of the result box is now synchronized with the parent box. You can move the result box
to any position. Each time you move the parent box, the synchronized result boxes are moved automatically and always
hold their position relative to the parent box.

The text of the result box can also be adjusted horizontallly, vertically or diagonally, as described above. The font settings can be adjusted as desired by
the popup menu font.

13.6.4.3 Non sync
In Non sync mode the result box settings have all the features like Object sync mode. But the box is not synchronized with any other objects.

13.7 Chart BoxFile Menu
Chart boxes are advanced result boxes to display results graphically. The handling is similar to the result box.

The popup menu is extended with two menu items. With the Chart menu you can choose between different chart types.Chart OptionsChartBox Menu
You can select the types: Line, Area, Point, Bar and Pie.

With Chart Options item you can choose the properties of the Chart box.

Axis scale
3D 3-D representation
Marks write values in the graph
Legends Legend of several data series shown

 

14.0 Extras MenuFile Menu
14.1 Page Lock
With Page Lock on the menu Extras, the editor�s page will be blocked for
additional entries. This function protects unintentional changes made. For data
input the cells can be unlocked with Unlock Cell.

14.2 Cell Unlock
With Unlock Cell on menu Extras cells in a locked page, are unlocked for data
entry. Select the cells by mouse, and then click Unlock Cell on menu Extras.
The unlocked fields are marked with an underscore.

To clear the unlocked cells select the cells by mouse, then click Unlock Cell on
menu Extras. The cells are locked now.

14.3 Remark
The Remark function marks data in a worksheet as a comment. This function can be performed with the function key F2. Comments are ignored by the calculator

To mark the data, first select the range with the mouse, and then click Remark. The selected data is displayed in green. You can undo this function using the same step

For longer comments, text boxes are more suitable. Remark is particularly suited to parts of a formula or input, temporarily excluded from the calculation

       

15.0 Options MenuFile Menu
15.1 Column Space
The menu Column Space opens a dialog window to set the minimum distance betweeen two formulas in a row. The minimum value you can set is 2 columns. RedCrab displays the value in the bottom, right corner, next to the keyboard setting. You can also open the dialog window with click on the number

15.2 Long Term
Switch to LongTerm mode to write long variable names. The implied multiplication interpreted �abc� as a*b*c. In LongTerm mode, rather "abc" is interpreted as one word. . In Long Term mode the ESC Button is in orange colour. The ESC function is disabled

15.3 Display Buffer
RedCrab works with a dual screen memory. This will scroll faster and flicker is avoided. However, this feature works only on new generation computers and video cards. On older computers, it can lead to slower response to inputs. In this case, it is convenient to click Display Buffer on Option menu to eliminate this feature

15.4 Keyboardd
The keyboard input in thhis description refers to an English keyboard in the country's setting English--US When using a non-English keyboard or language, some functions are acquired with other key combinations. This concern most of the Ctrl key functions. If you have problems with the assignment of the keys, click Keyboard in the Options menu. It opens with a list of alternative keyboards, which differ significantly in important features of the English keyboard. Here you select a keyboard that corresponds to your specification. Attached you will find images about key codes of the alternative keyboards and the occupancy of the Ctrl functions

15.5 Settings to Registry
When you shut down RedCrab, all major settings are stored in the PCs Windows Registry. Whenever RedCrab is started, these settings are restored. This concerns the keyboard settings, font size, number of decimal places, window size and many more. If you start RedCrab from an external source, e.g. USB stick from different computers, it does not make sense to save the settings on all computers. With the menu Options.Settings to Registry this function can be switched. The menu will display the text Settings to File and RedCrab saves the settings in the file redcrab.con in the root directory of the program

 

16.0 Help MenuFile Menu
16.1 About RedCrabDisplay the version number and license

16.2 Check for Updates Compare the version of the program with the latest version on the RedCrab server. It displays a message if an update is available. To use this function you must have an online connection

 

17.0 Work with RedCrab
After program start RedCrab display an empty page, similar to an empty sheet of paper. The arithmetic field�s size is 256 x 256 cells

17.1 Variable overload
You can assign different values to the same variable

Example:
P = U*I =
P = U2/R =

But an overloaded variable has no defined value and can�t be used for further calculations or result boxes

Overloaded constants can be reused. Example: the constant e is occupied by the Euler number e = 2.7182818. You can overload this value and use e for further calculations

Example 1:
x=e=2.7182818

Example 2:
e=11
X=2e=22

17.2 Fractions
Entering a fraction line: Press the keys CTRL+/ (Ctrl + Slash) and a three-character fraction bar will be displayed. By repeatedly pressing the keys the fraction bar is extended by one character forward. In general, it is sufficient if you continue entering data above and below the fracture line. When typing the numerator or denominator data, the fraction bar is automatically extended by the editor as far as it is required

If you have taken the fraction line, the cursor is in the first column after the line. Press in this position Enter key, the cursor moves over the slash to the first position of the numerator. After entering the numerator, press again Enter, the cursor jump to the first position of the Denominators. After entering the data press Enter again. The cursor jump back into the column right of the fraction line

! The fraction bar must exceed at least 1 character front and rear

Examples:

123 wrong
abc

123 correct
Abc

17.3 Root
Set the root character with the keys CTRL+1 to the desired position. Then mark the area which is to be included under the root. Finally set the cursor on the root of character, the editor draws the root symbol over the marked area

For one-line root calculation, the following steps apply:

1. Set root symbol with CTRL+1.
2. Enter the data
3. Holding down the Shift key and with Cursor-left key reposition to the root sign.
The editor draws the root symbol over the marked area

For multi-line data in the root (e.g., fractions):
1. Set root symbol with CTRL+1.
2. Data entry.
3. Mark the area for the root with the mouse.
4. Click the mouse on the root symbol.
The editor draws the root symbol over the marked area

In order to highlight the area, it is sufficient if the last column under the root is marked

To change the area under the root, highlight, as described above, the new field and then click the cell of the root sign. The roots then marked the new area

By double-clicking on the root symbol the root lines around the data is removed

17.4 Escape Mode
RedCrab works as described above with implied multiplication. A sequence of letters be regarded as a single variable and be multiplied

Example: c=ab  interpreted as c=a*b

If it is necessary for a variable or a function to use a name with more than one letter use the Escape mode. The Escape mode is activated by pressing the ESC key. All these characters are then interpreted as one word, until the Escape mode is switched off. To cancel ESC, press Return or '('. The screen will be printed bold characters in Escape mode

Example: value = sum � discount

If a bracket follows an Escape variable you must set an operator before the bracket. Escape name followed by a bracket without operator is usually interpreted as a function call

For example:
correct: sin(12 + a)
correct: six*(12 + a)
wrong: six(12 +a)

Different Esc names must be separated by SPACE or operator; otherwise they are interpreted as a word

For example:
correct: apple * banana
correct: apple banana
wrong : applebanana

17.5 Fields
The following section describes how to work with dynamic data fields. RedCrab can manage multi-dimensional fields. Size and dimensions are limited by the resources of the computer only

The handling of the fields corresponds to the simple variables. That means no special declaration of variables is required. To generate a field, a sequence of numbers is assigned to a variable. The sequence is written in square brackets and separated by commas

Example: x = [1,3,7,12]

The assignment of a series shows the following example. It will be assigned to the variable x 180 indices with the values 1 to 180

Example: x = [1..180]

A series is always expanded in increments of + /-1. Other step sizes can multiply or divide by the field generated
Example: x=5[0..4]= 0 5 10 15 20

x = [0..5]/5 = 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

x = 5/[1..5] = 5 2.5 1.67 1.25 1

x=2[5..0]= 10 8 6 4 2 0

Series, individual values and variables can be combined
Example: x = [1,5..8,12,15] = 1 5 6 7 8 12 15
Example: a=3

b = 12
x=[1,a..5,b]= 1 3 4 5 12

Fields are treated as normal values in calculations and can be combined with all operators and functions. The result is a field as well
Example: [2,4,7] + + 10 = 12 14 17 (2+10 44+10 7+10)
Example: sin([30,6 60,90])= 0.5 0.87 1
Example: [12,18,36 6,44] mod 10= 2 8 6 4
Example: C = 4.6 1 10-6
f = [1200 0,1600,2000,2600]
Example: [2,4,7] + + 10 = 12 14 17 (2+10 44+10 7+10)
Example: sin([30,6 60,90])= 0.5 0.87 1
Example: [12,18,36 6,44] mod 10= 2 8 6 4
Example: C = 4.6 1 10-6
f = [1200 0,1600,2000,2600]

= 28.2 21.2 16,9 13

XC=

The example

above shows a list as a result, which contains four different values of f..

Individual components of a field can be accessed via the index

Example:
x = [11.. .20]
y = x[1,4,6..8] = 11 14 16 17 18

17.6 Multidimensional fields
To generate multi-line fiellds, separate each row by semicolon

Example: x=[1,2,3; ;4,5,6]= 1 2 3
456

If rows have different length, the missing indexes are filled with zeros

Example: x = [1..5;22,4,6;3..9]=
1 2 3 4 5 0 0
2460000
3456789

Fields with three rows can be written alternative with a large bracket

Example:

This standard is generally used in matrix notation, but has no effect on the following calculations. For multiplication of matrices, refer to section below Mulx function

By entering the data, as described above, one-and two-dimensional fields are generated. Fields with three or more dimensions can be generated computationally

17.7 Work with fields
Two fields can be operands of a mathematical expression when the fields are of the same type. This means they must have the same size and number of dimensions. An exception is different length in the first dimenssion. The excess of the longer field are ignored

Example: a = [2,3,4,5]

b = [10,11,12,13]

c=a+b= 12141618 (2+10 3+11 4+12 5+13)

Example: a = [2,3,4,5]

b = [10,11,12,13,14,15]

c=a+b= 12141618

Excess field length of b (14,15) is ignored

Example: a = [2..5 5; 20..23]

b = [10.. .13; 30..33]

c=a+b b= 12141618

50 52 54 56

Example:
a = [2..5; 20..23]
b = [10..13; 30..33; 40,44,45,48]
c=a+b= 12141618

50 52 54 56
In this example, the third row of b is ignored

Example:
a = [2..5; 20..23]
b = [10..13; 30..33; 40,44,45,48]
c = a + b[1,3] = 12 14 16 18

60 65 67 71

In this example, a from row 1 is added with b from row 3

In the examples above, each index of a is added with the corresponding index of b. Alternatively RedCrab can calculate fields in which each index of an field a is calculated with each index of the field b. The result is a multidimensional field of the size indices a times indices b. The empty brackets following c declares the result as a multidimensional field and determines the type of the following calculation

Example: a = [10,15]
b = [2..4]
c[]=a+b= 121314 (10+2 10+3 10+4)

17 18 19 (15+2 15+3 15+4)

Example:
a = [3..6]
b = [11..15]

33 36 39 42 45

c[] = ab = 44 48 52 56 60
55 60 65 70 75
66 72 78 84 90

The next example shows to multiply a one-dimensional field by a two-dimensional field. The result is a three-dimensional field

Example:
a = [3..6]
b = [11..15]
c[] = ab

99 108 117 126 135

d[] = ac = 132 144 156 168 180
165 180 195 210 225
198 216 234 252 270

The display above shows the two-dimensional field of the first level. This is the field that lies behind the first row. Other fields can be accessed via index

Example: 132 144 156 168 180

d[2] = 176 195 208 224 240
220 240 260 280 300
264 288 312 336 360

17.8 Field Display
The result of a data field is always displayed in result boxes. This avoids display problems if not enough space on the worksheet to display large fields

If you have not assigned a result box to a field variable, RedCrab automatically generates a temporary result box. This temporary box is displayed with a transparent background and has a limited pop-up menu. If the result is deleted by reset, the result box is deleted too

One-dimensional data fields are displayed as a horizontal row. With the pop-up menu item Vertical, the display can be switched to a vertical list

With a click on the pop-up menu item Undocked you can show the result box in a separate window. The function is particularly suitable for large data fields

17.9 Constants
Eulerscher Number: 2.7182818284590452...
Euler's number e, also known as the exponential growth constant, is an important mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, that is the base of the natural logarithm
p PI : 3.1415....
The number pi is a mathematical constant that is the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, and is approximately equal to 3.14159

17.10 Error Messages
For error location RedCrab marks the cell in where an error is detected with a blue frame. It also marks the incorrect formula with a red frame

The marking of the entire formula simplifies the localization of errors that cause a false positioning. In the example below, an invalid assignment is signaled. The red selected box indicates, however, that two formulas were joined because the distance is too close. In this example the adjustment of the distance (column space) is 4 columns; the distance between the formula is only 2 columns

Red Crab Index (Glossary)

A
about RedCrab (16.1)
abs (5.6)
   abs(value) Returns the absolute value of a real number, expression, list, or matrix.
AC (clear) (3.1)
addin (6.14)
addition (1.2)
addon (6.16)
addto (6.15)
and button (4.0)
   and, or, and xor (exclusive or) return a value of 1 if an expression is true or 0 if an expression is false.
angle (13.6.3.3)
augment(listA,listB) Returns a list, which is listB concatenated to the end of listA.
aver (6.13)
    ave, mean mean, ave=sum/count

B
background (13.6.2.2)
backspace (3.1)
brackets symbol (3.3)

C
cell unlock (14.2)
check for updates (16.2)
chart box (13.7)
chart options (13.7)
clear (2.11)
colon (1.1)
   Between each mathematical expression, there must either a
   minimum number at blank columns or a colon must be set.
cos[value] (3.2)
   Returns cosine of a real number,
   expression, or list.
cos-1 (value) Returns arccosine of a real number, expression, or list.
column space (15.1)
comma (17.5)
   To generate a field, a sequence of numbers is assigned to a variable.
   The sequence is written in square brackets and separated by commas.
constants (17.9)
copy/paste (11.2)
count (6.12)
cusum (7.3)
   returns the calculation of a cumulative sum
cut/delete (11.4)

D
decimal digets (2.8)
deg (2.6)
diff (7.9)
different variable (1.4)
display buffer (15.3)
div button (4.0)
div operator (4.1)
dollar symbol (1.6)
dsort (7.4)
   (sort descending) sorts field elements from high to low values

E
e symbol (17.9)
edit menu (11.0)
End Identifies end of For(, If-Then-Else, Repeat, or While loop
enter button (1.2)
enter button (2.13)
equal sign (1.1)
error detection (1.1)
error messages (17.10)
esc [escape mode] (17.4)
escape (2.5)
escape mode (17.4)
   If it is necessary for a variable or a function to use a name
   with more than one letter use the Escape mode.
Euler number (17.9)
Excl (4.8)
exponent (1.3)
exponent (2.7)
exponent symbol (3.3)
extended functions (3.2)
extras menu (14.0)

F
field display (17.8)
   The result of a data field is always displayed in result boxes.
field 
fields (17.5)
 fields panel (6.0)
file menu (10.0)
file (definition) 
file (description) 
fill (6.3)
fix point (2.9)
   Fix # Sets fixed-decimal mode for # of decimal places.
floating point (2.9)
   Float Sets floating decimal mode.
font (13.6.2.1)
font and background (13.6.2)
fonts (2.1)
font size (2.2)
fPart(value) (5.3)
   Returns the fractional part or parts of a real or complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

format commands (13.6.1.5)
formatting (13.6.1.3)
frac (5.3)
fraction (1.5)
fractions (17.2)
function panel (3.0)
function panel (12.3)

G
gcd(valueA,valueB) Returns the greatest common divisor of valueA and valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.
grid (12.1)
grid sync (13.6.4.1)

H
hellenic letters (2.1)
help menu (16.0)
hex button (4.0)
hexadecimal (1.6)
hexadecimal (2.10)

I
:If condition :commandA :commands If condition = 0 (false), skips commandA.
:If condition :Then :commands :End :commands Executes commands from Then to End if condition = 1 (true).
:If condition :Then :commands :Else :commands :End :commands Executes commands from Then to Else if condition = 1 (true); from Else to End if condition = 0 (false).
image file (13.1)
implied multiplication (1.4)
incl (4.7)
insert menu (13.0)
int (5.2)
iPart(value) (5.2)
   Returns the integer part of a real or
   complex number, expression, list, or matrix.

J
join (6.1)

K
Keyboard (8.0)
Keyboard (15.4)

L
lcm(valueA,valueB) Returns the least common multiple of valueA and valueB, which can be real numbers or lists.
linefeed-return (3.1)
long term (15.2)
   Switch to LongTerm mode to write long variable names.
LQuart (7.10)

M
max (6.11)
   maximal value
   maximal value
mean (7.6)
   the mean (or ave) value of field.
median (7.5)
   returns the median (middle) value of fields.
   median, middle value
min (6.11)
   minimal value
   minimal value
mod button (4.0)
mod operator (4.2)
mulad (6.19)
mulin (6.17)
multidimensional fields (17.6)
   to generate multi-line fields
multiplication of matrices (6.2)
multo (6.18)
mulx (6.2)
   multiplication of matrices

N
new textbox (13.3)
non sync (13.6.4.3)
not button (4.0)
number panel (3.1)

O
object sync (13.6.4.2)
open (10.1)
operators (1.7)
Operator    Operation
==        Equal to
< >        Not equal to
>        Greater than
>=     Greater than or equal
<     Less than
<=     Less than or equal
options menu (15.0)
or button (4.0)

P
page lock (14.1)
page setup (10.5.1)
paste to box (11.3)
patt (6.4)
pi symbol (3.3)
popup menu (13.6.1)

positions (13.6.3)
print a worksheet (10.5)
printer setup (10.5.2)
prod (7.2)
   product of all elements of fields
programmer panel (4.0)
Q
QRan (7.12)
R
rad (2.6)
   radian Sets radian angle mode.
reference and format (13.6.1.1)
reference popup menu (13.6)
remark (14.3)
   remark function marks data in a worksheet as a comment.
   comments are ignored by the calculator.
reopen (10.2)
reset (2.12)
result box (13.6)
result box settings (13.6)
rnd (5.4)
root (17.3)
root symbol (3.3)
round (5.1)

S
save (10.3)
save as (10.4)
scientific functions (3.2)
scientific panel (3.2)
semicolon (17.6)
send to back - bring to front (13.6.3.1)
sequence of letters (1.4)
sequence of numbers (17.5)
series of numbers (17.5)
settings to registry (15.5)
several expressions (1.1)
sort (7.4)
   (sort ascending) sorts field elements from low to high values
show textbox (13.5)
si-prefix (13.6.1.2)
space (3.1)
special symbols (2.1)
specification of a prefix (13.6.1.4)
split expression (1.1)
square root (1.5)
sstdev (7.8)
   sample standard deviation of values in one�dimensional fields.
standard functions panel (5.0)
statistics panel (7.0)
stdev (7.8)
   standard deviation of values in one�dimensional field.
subscript (1.4)
subscript (2.4)
sum (7.1)
   Sum returns the sum of the elements in fields.
superscript (1.3)
superscript (2.3)
svari (7.7)
sample variance of values in one-dimensional field.
symbol panel (3.3)
synchronization (13.6.4)

T
text box (11.3.1)
text editing (11.3.2)
text file (13.2)
toolbox (2.0)
textbox to image (13.4)
trans (6.10)
   transpose matrix - swapping columns for rows in matrix
trigonometric functions (3.2)
   sin         sine, (opposite side / hypotenuse)
   cos         cosine, (adjacent side / hypotenuse)
   tan         tangent, (opposite side / adjacent side)
   cot         cotangent, (adjacent side / opposite side)
   arcsin     [1/sin, or sin-1] (hypotenuse / opposite side)
   arccos     [1/cos, or cos-1] (hypotenuse / adjacent side)
   arctan     [1/tan, or tan-1] (adjacent side / opposite side)
Transparent (13.6.2.3)

U
underscore (2.4)
undo/redo (11.1)
undock function panel (12.2)
UQuart (7.11)
urnd (5.5)

V
vari (7.7)
   variance of values in one-dimensional field.
variable (1.2)
variable overload (17.1)
vertical (13.6.3.2)
view menu (12.0)
virtual keyboard (12.4)

W
work with fields (17.7)
work with RedCrab (17.0)



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